Commemorative coins
In the new history there are many anniversaries, celebrations, coronations, which you can almost always find out by looking at the coins issued in honor of this event. A Soviet…

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Oriental coins (VII-XXI century)
The conquerors of the territories that previously belonged to Byzantium were not familiar with the coinage before the reign of Muhammad, and therefore the history of the Arab coinage begins…

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Coins and coin type of ancient Greece
The stamp imprint on the coins is the seal of the country or city that issued it. The drawings and inscriptions on the coins represent the most important concept of…

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countless small coins

Cleaning of old coins

The purpose of this message is to acquaint interested readers with the most simple and safe methods of cleaning coins, which the author can recommend based on his many years of experience in the restoration of an archaeological metal at the State Hermitage Museum. Clearing coins is one of the crucial types of restoration, it is important for their study, dating, identification and storage. Ancient coins made of silver and copper alloys, found in treasures or in other archaeological excavations, most often enter the restoration workshop highly corroded, and sometimes completely mineralized. Under the action of water and salts, copper is destroyed in the soil to form green carbonates and chlorides, red cuprous oxide and black oxide. Continue reading

Vintage German coins and medals

Coinage in the territory of the German state from the end of the Middle Ages (XV century) and until the introduction of the imperial state currency in 1871 is without doubt one of the most versatile and diverse areas of coin collecting.
While other European countries, such as England, Spain or France, by the end of the Middle Ages became national states in which coinage was carried out centrally, Germany until the founding of the Empire after the Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871) remained geographically heavily fragmented. Continue reading

Possessions of the Habsburgs - Austria (XII-XX centuries)
In 1273, King Rudolph I became the first representative of the Habsburg clan who ascended to the Roman-German throne. It began the reign of the Habsburg dynasty, which lasted until…

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European coins and medals (XVI-XXI century)
New time in numismatics begins in Europe around 1500 in the lands of the Habsburgs. In 1486, by order of the Archduke Sigismund (1439-1490), the Tyrolean guldengros was minted. It…

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German coins since 1871 - from Reichsmark to Euro
With the adoption of the constitution of the German Empire on April 16, 1871, responsibility for the currency of the empire passed from individual federal states to the government of…

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